Yes, you may be able to recover up to 90 days' worth of garnished wages back, if you file bankruptcy and you live in the "5th Circuit" which is comprised of Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi.
There are certain conditions, such as you must be able to claim the wages as exempt, you will likely have to file an adversary proceeding or lawsuit in your bankruptcy case against your creditor, and other requirements. But it is possible and our firm has done it.
For more information consult your bankruptcy attorney. The court case that they can read for more information is Tower Credit Inc. v. Schott (In re Jackson), 850 F3d 816 (5th Cir. March 13, 2017), cert denied.