No. You cannot be arrested for not paying a student loan.

But if you are sued for a student loan and have a judgment granted against you, and then are ordered by a court to answer questions about your finances and refuse to do so, then yes, you can be arrested and jailed, not for not paying your student loan but for violating the court's order. 

Lesson: If you are involved in a court proceeding, always comply with court orders. Or you may get arrested and jailed.

J Thomas Black
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Board Certified, Consumer Bankruptcy Law- Texas Board of Legal Specialization